[09:44, 12/05/2024] Makau Ngila: Discuss primary sources included in Elena Ponia

[09:44, 12/05/2024] Makau Ngila: Discuss primary sources included in Elena Ponia

[09:44, 12/05/2024] Makau Ngila: Discuss primary sources included in Elena Poniatowska’s Massacre in Mexico. What stood out to you? What did you find most valuable for understanding the Tlatelolco massacre, and why? What did you find confusing or difficult to understand? Unread postHL Hector Loredo Apr 19 8:58am Last reply Apr 21 4:50pm Reply from Hector Loredo In Frazier and Cohen’s article, “Defining the Space of Mexico ’68: Masculinity in the Prison and ‘Women’ in the Streets,” discuss the authors lens and thesis. In Frazier and Cohen’s article, the authors adopt a critical lens to examine the events surrounding the 1968 student protests in Mexico City. They analyze two key locations during the protests: the prison, which they argue represents masculinity and state power, and the streets, where the presence of women and marginalized groups challenged traditional gender roles and power structures. The article’s central thesis revolves around the intersection of gender during 1968. Frazier and Cohen argue that the physical spaces of the prison and the streets served as sites where gender norms were contested and reaffirmed. They suggest that within the male-dominated space of the prison, notions of masculinity were rigidly enforced through acts of violence and domination. “The prison dynamic encapsulated a particular relationship between suffering and thriving that was mediated by a constant threat of violence.” (Frazier, Cohen, Pg. 632). On the other hand, the streets played significant roles in the protests for women, challenging patriarchal structures and asserting their agency. “Women had a very important role because we participated just like men” (Frazier, Cohen, Pg. 653). “These kinds of street initiatives are key to understanding the movement’s success in gathering support outside universities and secondary schools”(Frazier, Cohen, Pg. 642). Overall, Frazier and Cohen’s lens considers gender as a critical factor in understanding historical events and social movements. How did gender shape experiences and activism during the 1968 student movement in Mexico? Specifically, discuss the experiences of male student leaders imprisoned in Lecumberri. How did that experience shape the narrative of their role in the movement? What are specific ways in which women participated in the student movement, and why/how were they excluded from popular (and academic) recollections of the movement? Gender played a significant role in shaping experiences and activism during the 1968 student movement in Mexico. Male student leaders imprisoned in Lecumberri faced unique challenges that influenced the narrative of their role in the movement. Their imprisonment also helped their position as symbols of resistance. On the other hand, women played crucial roles in the student movement, actively participating in protests, organizing events, and providing essential support to their male partners. “Women not only supplied political prisoners with their daily rations but also donated their professional services as doctors, lawyers, psychiatrists, teachers, and journalists.” (Frazier, Cohen, Pg. 648). However, their contributions were often marginalized or overlooked. Women faced exclusion from leadership positions and were frequently relegated to supporting roles, reinforcing traditional gender roles and hierarchies within the movement. Discuss primary sources included in Elena Poniatowska’s Massacre in Mexico. What stood out to you? What did you find most valuable for understanding the Tlatelolco massacre, and why? What did you find confusing or difficult to understand? The Massacre in Mexico” by Elena Poniatowska is a paperwork that dives into the tragic events of the Tlatelolco massacre that occurred on October 2, 1968, in Mexico City. Poniatowska’s primary sources include interviews with survivors, eyewitness accounts, official documents, and journalistic reports. What stands out to me the most about Poniatowska’s paper is the use of primary sources she gathered. One of the most valuable aspects of Poniatowska’s approach is her inclusion of multiple perspectives. By including versions from various individuals involved in the events leading up to the massacre, she offers readers a complete view of the social tensions and government response. However, one of my challenges was the sources and viewpoints presented in the book. Poniatowska brings together interviews, historical documents, and her narrative, which can sometimes make it difficult to follow between firsthand accounts and the author’s interpretation. Overall, Poniatowska’s use of primary sources in “Massacre in Mexico” offers an effective and immersive exploration of one of the darkest moments in Mexico’s history. [10:02, 12/05/2024] Makau Ngila: Discussion Eleven Respond to five (5) prompts (minimum two from each reading) with substantive, informed answers from this week’s readings. From Alexander, “Aleman’s Revolution”: For Alexander’s chapter, “Alemán’s Revolution,” discuss President Alemán’s administration–particularly his government’s approach to development. How was his government similar to other Latin American governments of the era, and how was it unique? Based on the Alexander’s chapter, evaluate the successes and shortcomings of the Alemán regime. What is Import-Substitution-Industrialization (ISI) and what are some examples of it under Alemán? What sorts of goods did Mexico begin to produce during this period that it never had before? Why did Alemán devalue the peso? What was the rational? What were some of the long-term consequences of Alemán’s economic policies? Compare the Alemán government’s approach to urban development and agricultural development. What were the intended–and unintended-consequences of in each sector? From Dina Berger, “A Drink Between Friends”: How did the tourist sector change from the early 1940s through the 1950s? What did this mean for the national economy and Mexican culture? How did tourism effect US-Mexican relations? Give specific examples from the text. How did tourism “transform” Mexico City? Why did Salvador Novo and others see nightclubs and tourism as having a “modernizing” effect on Mexico? What were some of the negative consequences of tourism in Mexico, according to critics? Respond to each prompt in 2 pages

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