If you order your assignment right now, you will be eligible for a great discount.

The Method section typically consists of three subsections: Participants Materia

The Method section typically consists of three subsections:
**You can choose to add other subsections if they can be justified.**
Participant Subsection
The Participant subsection is the first subsection, and it tells the reader a minimum of three pieces of information:
who was in your study
the population used
any restrictions in the nature of your participant pool
You must give the following information in your Participant subsection:
the total number of participants and the number assigned to each experimental condition.
the major demographic characteristics of the participants (such as age, sex, etc.).
You must report the way the participants were selected.
Were they randomly selected from the whole population or only from volunteers?
Were they not randomly selected but only volunteers?
Were they offered money or course credit to volunteer?
You must indicate if your participants are not representative of the general population and if the selection process was restricted in any way.
Did the study use only psych majors, only women, only deaf. etc.
Did the study eliminate any people with vision problem, color-blindness, hearing problems, etc.
You must indicate how the participants were assigned. Were they all assigned to the same group or did different one’s go to different groups.
If they went to different groups, were they randomly assigned?
Materials Subsection
The Materials subsection is the second subsection, and it tells the reader what equipment and tools you used to run your experiment and to acquire data. The rules for writing this subsection are as follows:
Standard equipment (such as screens, timers, keyboards, etc.) can be mentioned just by name and without detail.
In your descriptions of the materials, do NOT tell in detail how you will use them.
How apparatus and materials are used belongs in the Procedure subsection.
Example of Materials subsection:
The Social Phobia Scale was utilized in this study (see Appendix). It is a questionnaire consisting of 15 items in which the subject is asked to put a checkmark in the blank in front of any item that has applied to them in the last six months. It was created as an assignment in Psychological Statistics and Measurements class (PSY 300) at Missouri Western State College. Internal reliability has been determined for the scale, and content and construct validity have been established as well.
Procedure Subsection
The Procedure subsection is the third subsection, and it gives the reader a summary of each step in the execution of the research. This summary must be concise, precise, and logical. Do not burden the reader with too much detail but give enough so the reader can follow what is being done.
For the Procedure subsection, you must give the following information.
A description of the design (between, within, factorial, correlational, etc.)
A summary of the instructions to the subjects (do not give the complete instructions unless you do so in an appendix).
A description of the specific experimental manipulations. This means that you are operationally defining your IVs, and showing how the participants are exposed to the IVs.
A description of counterbalancing or other control features in the design.
Example of Procedure subsection
Participants were given a sheet of paper consisting of both humorous and non humorous sentences. They were given 5-7 minutes to read and comprehend all that they could in that time limit. After reading the sentences, the participants were given a small distracter task that consisted of 8 basic computational math problems. They were given 3 minutes to complete the dissector task. When the math problems were completed, the participants were given a recall test. On the recall test, the first few words of each sentence were given as a clue and the participants had to fill in the rest of the sentence, or at least as much as the could remember. After the tasks were completed the tests were scored on how many sentences of each, humorous and non humorous that each participant got correct.
Design – Between Subjects vs Within Subjects
Between Subjects
In between subject designs, the group of participants exposed to one IV are completely different than the group of participants exposed to other Ivs. The groups are said to be unrelated or independent.
The most common between subject design has only two groups (experimental and control). The experimental group experiences some kind of experimental manipulation. The control group is identical to the experimental group in every way except the control group does not experience the experimental manipulation.
All groups in a between subject design are measured by the same DV.
Within Subjects
In within subject designs, there is usually only one group of participants.
All participants are exposed to all IVs. Each time a participant experiences an IV, it is said to be in a group for that IV. Since all IV groups are, in effect, the same people, the groups in a within subject design are called related or dependent.
All groups in a within subject design are measured by the same DV.
RULE: The DV always measures all participants no matter what the design.
Why differentiate between BETWEEN and WITHIN?
The answer has to do with control and confounding differences that we will discuss in detail
The Results section is where you get to report what the data reveals. However, you do not get to provide interpretation here. In fact, the rule is “results only.” The “fun” part of what you think the Results means gets written in the Discussion section.
This does not mean there is no creativity allowed in the Results section. In fact, the wise writer uses graphs and figures to highlight the most important or interesting information. Otherwise, arrange the results from most to least relevant or strong. You will also want to point out results that didn’t amount to much of anything, although this is unsatisfying. The only results that are often not reported are those with no pattern at all; that is, results that are uninterpretable.
The fun of results is not so much in the writing as in the analysis itself. Lab supervisors are famous for entering their domains with cries of “Where is the data??”. Results are analyzed in terms of the hypotheses being tested, variables chosen,and tests performed.
Preparing Results
Step One: Since the Results section must use both verbal explanation and numerical explanation, it’s worth your time to write out a sentence or two about each of the various relationships you notice in the data. Note that I didn’t say “a sentence or two describing each and every result.” The reader is perfectly capable of looking at a bar graph and noting for themselves that 17.2% of first time computer users were between ages 4 and 5. So it is not to your benefit or the reader’s to write out a sentence describing every detail.
What to include:
– results that answer the research question (most important)
– data you can use to outline important trends
– results that you intend to address in the discussion section
– results of statistical analyses, often in conjunction with measurements analyzed
– results related to those obtained by other researchers, especially if they conflict or are controversial
– negative results also
Step Two: Create a couple of interesting figures (graphs, tables) that reveal the relationships you’d most like the reader to notice. These should be results that most directly answer the research question. Thus crafting figures is a strategic way of highlighting information by juxtaposing salient results without actually going so far as to provide interpretation. You also need to have the basic data available for the reader, and this is where tables are quite useful.
One thing to keep in mind – if you create a graph, then it is because you wish to say something about this information in the Discussion section. Do not create “kitchen sink” figures where you put all the data just to have it there. Finally, figures must have text about them written in the Results section. You cannot just stick in a figure and be done with it. The main point of the figure should be written out with an appropriate reference at the end of the sentence, “…(Fig. 1)”. All figures require titles and captions; graphs must have clear labels for X & Y axes.
**Note: Graphs created in SPSS are not proper APA format. You can create the graphs/figures in SPSS as a reference for you (so you know exactly what they are supposed to look like) but then you have to create them again in Excel and format them according to APA guidelines.**
Step Three: If you are using a stats program, then you should report +/- significances when appropriate. If using descriptive statistics, do NOT use the word “significant” anywhere in the Results or Discussion sections.

Default image
Articles: 230290

Quick Quote